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Basics of Investing

Government of Canada
483 views - Jan 9, 2018

Types of investments Some of the most common types of investments include the following: Annuity An annuity is a type of investment contract that pays you income at regular intervals, usually after retirement. Bond A bond is a certificate you receive for a loan you make to a company or government (an issuer). In return, the issuer of the bond promises to pay you interest at a set rate and to repay the loan on a set date. Canada Savings Bond (CSB) A Canada Savings Bond is a savings product issued and guaranteed by the federal government. It offers a minimum guaranteed interest rate. Canada Savings Bonds have a three-year term to maturity, with interest rates remaining in effect for that period. At the end of the period, the Minister of Finance announces the new rates based on prevailing market conditions. It may be cashed at any time and earns interest up to the date it is cashed. Canada Savings Bonds are only available through the Payroll Savings Program, which allows Canadians to purchase bonds through payroll deductions. Learn about current interest rates and how to buy Canada Savings Bonds.? Exchange traded fund (ETF) An exchange traded fund is an investment fund that holds assets such as stocks, commodities or bonds. Exchange traded funds trade on stock exchanges and have a value that is similar to the total value of the assets they contain. This means that the value of an exchange traded fund can change throughout the day. The risk level of an exchange traded fund depends on the assets it contains. If it contains high-risk assets, like some stocks, then the risk level will be high. Guaranteed investment certificate (GIC) A GIC is an investment that protects your invested capital. You will not lose money on the investment. GICs can have either a fixed or a variable interest rate. Mutual fund A mutual fund is a type of investment in which the money of many investors is pooled together to buy a portfolio of different securities. A professional manages the fund. They invest the money in stocks, bonds, options, money market instruments or other securities. Security A security is a transferable certificate of ownership of an investment product such as a note, bond, stock, futures contract or option. Segregated fund A pooled investment fund, much like a mutual fund, is set up by an insurance company and segregated from the general capital of the company. The main difference between a segregated fund and a mutual fund is the guarantee that, regardless of fund performance, at least a minimum percentage of the investor’s payments into the fund will be returned when the fund matures. Stock A stock is a unit of ownership in a company which is bought and sold on a stock exchange. Stocks are also called “shares” or “equities”. Treasury bill (T-bill) A T-bill is a short-term, low-risk investment issued by a federal or provincial government. It is sold in amounts ranging from $1,000 to $1 million, and must be held for a fixed term which can range from one month to a year. Common investment terms Before making investment decisions, it is important to understand basic concepts. Risk Risk is the potential of losing your money when investing, or the level of uncertainty regarding what you will earn or lose on your investment. Almost every type of investment involves some risk. Generally, the higher the potential return, the higher the risk. Return Return on your investment, also known as ROI, is the profit or growth that you make on an investment. It can vary greatly. For some investments, it can't be predicted with certainty. An investment’s return can come in two forms. Income, including interest or dividends. A dividend is a portion of a company’s profit that is paid to its shareholders Increased value, also called “capital gain,” which lets you sell your investment for a profit You can also have a negative return if your investment loses value. This is also called a “capital loss.” Risk tolerance Risk tolerance is how comfortable you are with risk and not knowing what you will earn or lose on your investment. If you prefer little or no risk, you have a low risk tolerance, or are “risk averse”. You have a high risk tolerance if you are willing to risk losing some or all of your investment in exchange for the potential to earn more money. Liquidity Liquid assets or investments are those you are able to cash in or sell quickly. Examples of liquid assets include savings accounts and most stocks. A house is considered a non-liquid asset. Liquidity can be important if you are planning to use your savings or investments in the short term. Diversification Portfolio diversification means having a mix of investments as a way of reducing risk. When you hold a variety of investments, you reduce the possibility that all of them will lose value at the same time. If you only own one stock and that company loses value, then you risk losing all of the money you invested. Risk level of investments Each type of investment option has its own level of complexity and risk. Before choosing an investment, it's important to understand what level of risk you are comfortable with. The most common categories of investments have varying levels of risk. Low, or no, risk investments Savings-like investments are generally low-risk, or even no-risk, investments. This is because the capital, and often the return, is guaranteed. Examples of savings-like investments include: guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) treasury bills Fixed-income securities are also considered low-risk investments. Examples of fixed-income securities include: government bonds corporate bonds High-risk investments Equities, also called stocks or shares, are considered high-risk investments. The risk level of mutual funds and exchange-traded funds depends on the type of investment included in the fund. Get an overview of different investment types in Investments at a glance, published by the Canadian Securities Administrators. How taxes apply to investments You may need to pay taxes on the money you make from your investments. There are different tax rules for different types of investments. Unless your investments are very simple, seek professional advice on tax planning. Learn more about filing your taxes by taking an online course, Learning About Taxes. Fees and costs of investments There are different fees and costs depending on the investment type. These costs can impact your return, so it's important to be aware of them. Most fees and costs relating to investments fall into the following categories: costs to buy an investment costs when you sell an investment investment management fees financial advisor fees administration fees for registered plans Not all costs apply to all investments. For example, the sales commissions when you buy bonds are often included in the purchase price. Cost of buying an investment depends on the type of investment. The cost of buying an investment depends on the type of investment. You may pay a trading fee every time you buy a stock or exchange traded fund. For this reason, you may want to limit the frequency of your purchases. Brokerages and investment firms set their own fees, so the trading fee depends on the company you use. Mutual funds can have different fees when you buy them: “front-end load” mutual funds do have a fee. The fee is generally a percentage of the fund’s purchase price “no load” mutual funds don't involve an up-front fee Costs when you sell an investment The cost of selling an investment depends on the type of investment. With some mutual funds, instead of paying a fee, or “front-end load” fee when you buy, you pay a fee when you sell. This is known as a “back-end load” fee. The back-end load fee: is generally a percentage of your selling price is normally highest in the first year after purchase gradually decreases for every year you hold the investment may be waived by the fund dealer if you hold the investment long enough Think carefully before buying funds with “back-end load” fees. The fees are charged when you sell the funds and are based on a percentage of the selling price. You may be charged fees as high as 7% if you sell in the first year. To avoid this cost, you may have to hold the investment for several years. Costs to manage the fund Investment funds, including mutual funds, charge a fee for managing the fund. The fees are called the management expense ratio (MER). The MER: may include an ongoing commission paid to advisors who sell the fund (also known as a trailer fee) is paid regardless of whether the fund makes money is deducted before calculating the investor’s return is set at a percentage of the fund’s value The percentage varies depending on the fund. This can be from less than 1% to over 3%. For example, you may have a fund with an annual return of 5%. If the fund’s MER was 3%, your net annual return would be 2%.

Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock

T. S. Eliot
525 views - Jan 5, 2018

The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock Launch Audio in a New Window BY T. S. ELIOT S’io credesse che mia risposta fosse A persona che mai tornasse al mondo, Questa fiamma staria senza piu scosse. Ma percioche giammai di questo fondo Non torno vivo alcun, s’i’odo il vero, Senza tema d’infamia ti rispondo. Let us go then, you and I, When the evening is spread out against the sky Like a patient etherized upon a table; Let us go, through certain half-deserted streets, The muttering retreats Of restless nights in one-night cheap hotels And sawdust restaurants with oyster-shells: Streets that follow like a tedious argument Of insidious intent To lead you to an overwhelming question ... Oh, do not ask, “What is it?” Let us go and make our visit. In the room the women come and go Talking of Michelangelo. The yellow fog that rubs its back upon the window-panes, The yellow smoke that rubs its muzzle on the window-panes, Licked its tongue into the corners of the evening, Lingered upon the pools that stand in drains, Let fall upon its back the soot that falls from chimneys, Slipped by the terrace, made a sudden leap, And seeing that it was a soft October night, Curled once about the house, and fell asleep. And indeed there will be time For the yellow smoke that slides along the street, Rubbing its back upon the window-panes; There will be time, there will be time To prepare a face to meet the faces that you meet; There will be time to murder and create, And time for all the works and days of hands That lift and drop a question on your plate; Time for you and time for me, And time yet for a hundred indecisions, And for a hundred visions and revisions, Before the taking of a toast and tea. In the room the women come and go Talking of Michelangelo. And indeed there will be time To wonder, “Do I dare?” and, “Do I dare?” Time to turn back and descend the stair, With a bald spot in the middle of my hair — (They will say: “How his hair is growing thin!”) My morning coat, my collar mounting firmly to the chin, My necktie rich and modest, but asserted by a simple pin — (They will say: “But how his arms and legs are thin!”) Do I dare Disturb the universe? In a minute there is time For decisions and revisions which a minute will reverse. For I have known them all already, known them all: Have known the evenings, mornings, afternoons, I have measured out my life with coffee spoons; I know the voices dying with a dying fall Beneath the music from a farther room. So how should I presume? And I have known the eyes already, known them all— The eyes that fix you in a formulated phrase, And when I am formulated, sprawling on a pin, When I am pinned and wriggling on the wall, Then how should I begin To spit out all the butt-ends of my days and ways? And how should I presume? And I have known the arms already, known them all— Arms that are braceleted and white and bare (But in the lamplight, downed with light brown hair!) Is it perfume from a dress That makes me so digress? Arms that lie along a table, or wrap about a shawl. And should I then presume? And how should I begin? Shall I say, I have gone at dusk through narrow streets And watched the smoke that rises from the pipes Of lonely men in shirt-sleeves, leaning out of windows? ... I should have been a pair of ragged claws Scuttling across the floors of silent seas. And the afternoon, the evening, sleeps so peacefully! Smoothed by long fingers, Asleep ... tired ... or it malingers, Stretched on the floor, here beside you and me. Should I, after tea and cakes and ices, Have the strength to force the moment to its crisis? But though I have wept and fasted, wept and prayed, Though I have seen my head (grown slightly bald) brought in upon a platter, I am no prophet — and here’s no great matter; I have seen the moment of my greatness flicker, And I have seen the eternal Footman hold my coat, and snicker, And in short, I was afraid. And would it have been worth it, after all, After the cups, the marmalade, the tea, Among the porcelain, among some talk of you and me, Would it have been worth while, To have bitten off the matter with a smile, To have squeezed the universe into a ball To roll it towards some overwhelming question, To say: “I am Lazarus, come from the dead, Come back to tell you all, I shall tell you all”— If one, settling a pillow by her head Should say: “That is not what I meant at all; That is not it, at all.” And would it have been worth it, after all, Would it have been worth while, After the sunsets and the dooryards and the sprinkled streets, After the novels, after the teacups, after the skirts that trail along the floor— And this, and so much more?— It is impossible to say just what I mean! But as if a magic lantern threw the nerves in patterns on a screen: Would it have been worth while If one, settling a pillow or throwing off a shawl, And turning toward the window, should say: “That is not it at all, That is not what I meant, at all.” No! I am not Prince Hamlet, nor was meant to be; Am an attendant lord, one that will do To swell a progress, start a scene or two, Advise the prince; no doubt, an easy tool, Deferential, glad to be of use, Politic, cautious, and meticulous; Full of high sentence, but a bit obtuse; At times, indeed, almost ridiculous— Almost, at times, the Fool. I grow old ... I grow old ... I shall wear the bottoms of my trousers rolled. Shall I part my hair behind? Do I dare to eat a peach? I shall wear white flannel trousers, and walk upon the beach. I have heard the mermaids singing, each to each. I do not think that they will sing to me. I have seen them riding seaward on the waves Combing the white hair of the waves blown back When the wind blows the water white and black. We have lingered in the chambers of the sea By sea-girls wreathed with seaweed red and brown Till human voices wake us, and we drown.

Our path in life

John Wilson
389 views - Jan 2, 2018

So strange and wonderful are the twists and turns Shiny lights, glimmering waters, twinkling stars above As we look back at what has been so precious Getting so high I've lost my way Ruby lips, so much did I desire And yet, somehow retained control Where is home, and how can I ever find it As you reached out your hand, to hold mine, touching me That first time in the place you ripped up the letter rules Shattering every nerve in my body As I became dizzy with hope and desire You who I'd loved unconditionally for so long That quick wit, that smile, that energy, You who I admire so much, who I adore I want so much to care for you, be there for you A kiss that came so unexpectedly, The thrill of which is never ending So much to try to understand Do i really know what love is Time to do the right thing for everyone To touch and hold, to be with you Laying side by side for the first time Such deep kisses, searching, exploring Feeling so much, such loving happiness Confronting all that has been Reaching for the reasons why Trying to understand it all Not knowing what is truly right How can I deal with all this feeling I've never felt like this before You, you are there, and you give me meaning You light up this world like nothing I've ever known You meet me at your door, take me in We slowly explore each others sensitivities Getting closer to each other, closer than anyone, ever We are dancing around and around Through the ups and downs we feel so deeply We cry together as we feel that pain We laugh together as we feel that joy We are on our path in life Holding each other closer and closer Getting deeper and deeper together It feels right and true to love I love you

Who is she

John Wilson
1,180 views - May 20, 2017

Who is she by my side A free spirit I feel so deeply Opening up my heart truthfully Being who we really are So much ourselves tangled up Together we struggle for the core So much connected, deep kisses Eyes of blue, green reflecting the sky Laying entwined, perfect curves Soft white skin, pulsing with life She makes me cry when I think What does all this mean That we two strangers have merged For a time to explore each other Inside that complex being of life Fighting to understand ourselves So much for each other And just when I think it is over We go just a little deeper Approaching the edge of what it means To be together, alone and as one We are free to be who we are Brought to life by the other who sees Hearing and feeling, sensing and knowing Just how can we hold on to what we've got As earth revolves, turning day into night Then in the morning, that peaceful look A face of perfection for the ages So now maybe why has been left in the dreams As sleepily we cuddle up close, leg over leg Cheek to cheek, inhaling each others breath Holding on tighter than ever As if we weathered another storm Sun shines again, skies open up clear Dreamily we hold each other, we simply hold on As another day gives us another chance To live and fly together, building dreams Out of the beautiful waste land all around us We see a singing, dancing painting, poet Digging further to find that ephemeral nature Of the idea of some kind of meaning For what is our purpose Why do we awake to see that meaning Deep in the eyes, behind those glorious eyes Conscious of each other despite our selfish reality We care and want to be cared for, dreamed of Thought of like nothing else as if it matters Creating all that we can An idea, a thought, a dream of pure reality For you inspire this in me.

OF THE NATURE OF THINGS

Titus Lucretius Carus
513 views - Mar 7, 2017

To Epicurus, the unhappiness and degradation of humans arose largely from the dread which they entertained of the power of the deities, from terror of their wrath. This wrath was supposed to be displayed by the misfortunes inflicted in this life and by the everlasting tortures that were the lot of the guilty in a future state (or, where these feelings were not strongly developed, from a vague dread of gloom and misery after death). To remove these fears, and thus to establish tranquility in the heart, was the purpose of his teaching. Thus the deities, whose existence he did not deny, lived forevermore in the enjoyment of absolute peace, strangers to all the passions, desires, and fears, which agitate the human heart, totally indifferent to the world and its inhabitants, unmoved alike by their virtues and their crimes. To prove this position he called upon the atomism of Democritus, so as to demonstrate that the material universe was formed not by a Supreme Being, but by the mixing of elemental particles that had existed from all eternity governed by certain simple laws. Lucretius' task was to clearly state and fully develop these views in an attractive form; his work was an attempt to show that everything in nature can be explained by natural laws, without the need for the intervention of divine beings.[3] Lucretius identifies the supernatural with the notion that the deities created our world or interfere with its operations in some way. He argues against fear of such deities by demonstrating, through observations and arguments, that the operations of the world can be accounted for in terms of natural phenomena. These phenomena are the regular, but purposeless motions and interactions of tiny atoms in empty space. Meanwhile, he argues against the fear of death by stating that death is the dissipation of a being's material mind. Lucretius uses the analogy of a vessel, stating that the physical body is the vessel that holds both the mind (mens) and spirit (anima) of a human being. Neither the mind nor spirit can survive independent of the body. Thus Lucretius states that once the vessel (the body) shatters (dies) its contents (mind and spirit) can no longer exist. So, as a simple ceasing-to-be, death can be neither good nor bad for this being. Being completely devoid of sensation and thought, a dead person cannot miss being alive. According to Lucretius, fear of death is a projection of terrors experienced in life, of pain that only a living (intact) mind can feel. Lucretius also puts forward the 'symmetry argument' against the fear of death. In it, he says that people who fear the prospect of eternal non-existence after death should think back to the eternity of non-existence before their birth, which probably did not cause them much suffering.

Emergence of the Sharing Economy

Jeremy Rifkin
1,696 views - Jan 27, 2016

Topics covered include the sharing economy, zero marginal cost and the three "internets" of the future that drive us towards a new economy. These are the information internet, the energy internet, and the internet of things. Covered in this talk is Germany as the leading beacon of light for the energy transition to renewable energy and now being copied by China. What is not made clear by Rifkin is that this revolution, the solar revolution, was architected by Herman Scheer and is well documented in books like the Solar Economy that Scheer wrote based on is many years as a parliamentarian in Germany creating the economic levers that made this possible through the feed-in tariff system. Critically, at the end, Rifkin makes a clear call for the critical need for rapid action without delay. He calls for the end of the fossil fuel companies in order to save the world from climate change destruction, and makes the case for a more resilient and fufilling economy based on renewable distributed energy. He also links this to energy democracy, so critical to real democracy, again a key concept developed by Herman Scheer, but who Rifkin does not reference nor acknowledge as he should. Another important point made is that the 2008 financial collapse was a result and not a cause. The cause of the 2008 financial crisis was the price of a barrel of oil reaching $140 per barrel four months before the financial crash. Renewable energy is critical to preventing this kind of economic disruption in the future.

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